By Michael F. Bird
Have been there Jewish missionaries in the course of Jesus' time? moment Temple Judaism was once now not a customary missionary faith with decisive and intentional plans for changing these outdoor the religion. besides the fact that, Jewish attitudes and activities towards the Gentile global have been varied within the scattered groups throughout Palestine, leading to differing suggestions for recruiting new adherents and valuable sympathizers. poultry examines the volume and nature of Jewish proselytizing task between non-Jews in Palestine and the Greco-Roman Diaspora prime as much as and through the beginnings of the Christian period. He enters the controversy via interacting with different works at the subject (Scott McKnight, Martin Goodman, John Dickson, Rodney Stark, John Barclay) and gives the reason why a few researchers desire one standpoint over one other. in response to facts from compelled conversions throughout the Maccabean interval, Qumran, the Gospels, Palestinian inscriptions, and rabbinic literature, chicken asserts that no major proselytizing task happened in moment Temple Palestine. He additional examines the recent testomony; Josephus and Philo; and Apologetic-Propagandistic, early Christian, Greek, and Latin literature and concludes that Jewish missionary task in the course of the Diaspora happened basically as remoted incidents. these instructing and doing learn within the zone of old Judaism and the beginnings of Christianity will have fun with Bird's well-documented learn. The inclusion of brief extracts of basic assets with English translations makes the fabric extra available to school and seminary scholars.
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Additional info for Crossing over Sea and Land: Jewish Missionary Activity in the Second Temple Period
Lattke ("The Call to Discipleship and Proselytizing:' 361, n. Ned. 111. 96 m . Ker. 1; b. Ker. 8b-9a; m. 'Ed. 2; m. Pesah. 8; b. Pesah. 92a; b. Yebam. 46a-47b; cf. 331-32; Kirsopp Lake, "Proselytes and God-Fearers:' in The Beginnings ofChristianity (eds. F. J. 173-76; Cohen, The Beginnings ofJewish ness) 198-238. 38 CROSSING OVER SEA AND LAND become the High Priest and wear the Priestly garments. Shammai turns him away, but Hillel accepted him. Subsequently the convert realized that even David, the King of Israel, did not qualify as a priest since he wasn't descended from Aaron's line.
Levi 6:3. 86Deut 10:16; 30:6; Lev 26:41; Jer 4:4; 9:25-26; Ezek 44:9; Philo, Spec. Leg. 304-306; Quaest. in Ex. 2; Quaest. in Gen. 46,48; lQS 5:5; lQH 18:20; lQpHab 11:13; cf. Rom 2:29; Col 2:11; Barn. 9:1-9. 87Exod 12:43,48-49; Num 9:14. 88Exag. Pesah. 8. 89Michael Lattke, "The Call to Discipleship and Proselytizing:' HTR 92 (1999): 359-62. 0 9 Cf. Matt 19:27-29; Luke 18:28-30. 1 9 C£ Gos. 'Ihom. 55, 101. 92Philo, Spec. Leg. 51-52. DEFINING "MISSION" AND "CONVERSION" 37 of "house, brothers, sisters, mothers, fathers, children or fields" and the departure from "their country, their kinsfolk and their friends:' This stands in contrast with a view to gaining family and eternal life (Mark), or another homeland, relatives, friends, protection and refuge (Philo).
Yet by going that route Paul did not simply opt for a liberalized Jewish view of salvation without circumcision, but rather, he advocated full inclusion into the people of God on the basis of faith in Christ, which itself is able to deliver believers. For Paul, in the new age that had dawned in Jesus Christ's resurrection, physical circumcision had been replaced by "circumcision of the heart" as the ultimate sign of covenant inclusion. There are, however, several strands of evidence from Diasporan, rabbinic, and Greco-Roman literature that show that the designation "Jew" could be applied somewhat flexibly and beyond the marker of circumcision and integration into the Jewish community.
Crossing over Sea and Land: Jewish Missionary Activity in the Second Temple Period by Michael F. Bird