By Penelope M. Jenkin
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Additional info for Control of Growth and Metamorphosis. Animal Hormones: A Comparative Survey
211; B. Scharrer, 19626). CHILOPODA. This class of Arthropoda includes the centipedes, but in some classifications it is grouped with the Symphyla and Diplopoda, under the heading of Myriapoda. The neurosecretory system of the centipede, Lithobius, has been fully described (Scheffel, 1961). It appears to secrete two hormones, one in hibiting and one possibly accelerating release of a moult-promoting hormone. c. that secrete PTH in the same part of the insect brain. c. of Insecta. In Lithobius, it is only the frontal group which appears to have axons carrying the neurosecretion into the so-called cerebral gland, which acts as the storage-and-release organ (Fig.
A rather anomalous mixture of innervation and neurosecretion in nerves from five head seg ments has been described in the isopod, Porcellio (Besse and Legrand, 1964). In a dissection, the gland in Carcinus maenas (Fig. 2-11) may appear brownish in colour and slightly lobulated and be very difficult to distinguish from the surrounding muscles. br FIG. 2-11. The Y-organ of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. (a) Sketch of the right, anterior corner of the cephalothorax from the ventral side to show the position and size of aperture needed to expose the Y-organ.
Arrows here indicate nervous stimuli acting on the preganglionic neurons of the vertebrate autonomic system. In the sympathetic system (a) these stimulate nervous impulses in the adrenergic postganglionic neuron and this affects the final target organ, the neurotrans mitter substance between the first two being presumed to be acetylcholine, whereas that between the postganglionic axon and the target organ is adrena line or noradrenaline. In the adrenal medulla (b) the postganglionic neuron is transformed into, or replaced by, a cell that also secretes adrenaline but in sufficiently increased amounts to be effective when passed into the general circulation, which can then distribute it to a number of target cells, instead of only to one.
Control of Growth and Metamorphosis. Animal Hormones: A Comparative Survey by Penelope M. Jenkin