By Peter Wooding, Graham Burton
Technological know-how produces interesting puzzles: why is there this kind of variety of placental constructions while different mammalian organs are so structurally uniform ? Why and the way did the several placental buildings evolve ? Comparative placental stories can facilitate the id of the typical elements in placental progress, differentiation and serve as and their relevance to attainable evolutionary pathways. Comparative Placentation is the single ebook featuring updated info illustrating the nice number of constitution yet uniform functionality of vertebrate placentas from fish to guy. this data is vital for number of appropriate types to enquire specific sensible difficulties of impaired or anomalous progress in human and animal placentation. the original selection of the simplest mild and electron micrographs from the final thirtyfive years which accurately illustrate the structural diversity in every one taxon, make the ebook the main authoritative book during this box and an essential resource of data for an individual on reproductive body structure, anatomy and medication.
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Additional resources for Comparative Placentation: Structures, Functions and Evolution
For example, in mice the remodelling is mostly by interstitial cytotrophoblast and limited to the shallow decidual zone, but in rat and human both interstitial and endovascular remodelling is extended well into the myometrial spiral arteries in the second half of pregnancy. In Knock Out mice lacking uNK cells there is no remodelling and pregnancy is deleteriously affected (Croy et al. 2006), whereas in the potentially lethal human condition preeclampsia, characterised by little remodelling, an increased number of uNK cells has been reported.
Plaque allows controlled access to the maternal circulation. Once this has been achieved superficial development of a purely fetal vascularized syncytium to form villi or a labyrinthine meshwork is all that is required to produce the haemochorial primate placenta. There is no need for deeper erosion of the endometrium for in most Old World primates the maternal blood supply is restricted to orifices at the maternal face of the fetal tissue. Epithelial plaque formation is one way of achieving this controlled access to the maternal blood after superficial implantation: by contrast, interstitial implantation induces stromal decidual cell development (Ramsey 1982).
This again emphasizes that the different placental types are equally successful solutions to a particular cluster of environmental pressures. If one type of chorioallantoic placenta was more efficient, as the demands of the fetus increased it might be expected that this type would predominate since the placental area is growing continuously after establishment until term and thus is susceptible to continuous modification. The definitive placental structures may thus be defined as those found in the main placenta close to term.
Comparative Placentation: Structures, Functions and Evolution by Peter Wooding, Graham Burton