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By Mostafa Vaziri (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1137022949

ISBN-13: 9781137022943

ISBN-10: 1349437999

ISBN-13: 9781349437993

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Additional resources for Buddhism in Iran: An Anthropological Approach to Traces and Influences

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17 The rise of Buddhism as a world-class doctrine under the Kushān dynasty (ca. ), especially under King Kaniśka (ca. ) in northwestern India and parts of Khurāsān. 18 The success of the Kushāns was in fact due to their religious tolerance and assimilation of other ancient cults and religions including Mithraism and Zoroastrianism. The Kushāns assimilated various religious symbols and deities into the fabric of their empire and society, intermingling ancient Iranian and Indian traditions in Kushān art and their Buddhist writings.

33 The first three Noble Truths became the basis of one’s mind, and the Fourth Noble Truth became the means of daily improvisation based on emerging situations and experiences. Thus the Eightfold Path supplemented the concept of personhood or selfhood in social and moral realms, instead of drawing its practitioners into seclusion and isolation. All eight components of the Middle Path are important, but the Eighth Noble component, namely, right concentration or meditation, became a practice that infiltrated other mystical and ascetic practices, including Sufism.

79 Despite the lack of evidence of a Shaivism in Mesopotamia, the Gandhāran art of the Kushāns had found its way to the westernmost territories of the Sasanid Empire. In their interactions on an intellectual level, ironically, given their exclusive Zoroastrian cultural policy, the Sasanids showed a great interest in Indian sciences and literature, which included Buddhism. E. 80 India became known as the land where the fables were told with the language of talking animals. In the early Islamic period, Kelila va Dimna was translated from Middle Persian into Arabic and later into Persian.

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Buddhism in Iran: An Anthropological Approach to Traces and Influences by Mostafa Vaziri (auth.)

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