By Yorikiyo Nagashima

ISBN-10: 3527665048

ISBN-13: 9783527665044

A special and entire presentation on smooth particle physics which shops the history wisdom at the massive open questions past the traditional version, because the life of the Higgs-boson, or the character of darkish subject and darkish strength.

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**Additional info for Beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics**

**Sample text**

Here, ????SM denotes the Higgs in the SM. c. 51) 2 2mW This equation is written in terms of (t,b), but couplings to other fermions can be written down similarly. The couplings being speciﬁed, all the remaining parameters are the masses of the particle. Therefore, the production cross section, and hence the detection method, can be determined once the mass value is speciﬁed. 1 Coupling strength of the neutral Higgs to the fermion. 5 Higgs in the Supersymmetry Coupling strength of the neutral Higgs to the vector boson.

The collective symmetry breaking assumes that G breaks down to a subgroup H which contains SU(2) × U(1) in the SM. The Higgs appears as an NGB of the broken symmetry. But under normal circumstances, the gauge interaction will induce quadratically divergent contributions to the Higgs mass as in the SM. To avoid this, one assumes that G contains a subgroup consisting of two copies of SU(2) × U(1) ∶ G ⊃ H1 × H2 = [SU(2)1 × U(1)1 ] × [SU(2)2 × U(1)2 ]. The trick is to arrange this in such a way that each Hi commutes with a different subgroup Y ⊃ [SU(2) × U(1)]SM .

This is a ﬁne-tuning to the precision of (mEW ∕mGUT )2 ∼ 1028 . This has to be done at every order of the perturbation expansion that is considered unnatural. The problem is referred to as the big hierarchy problem to distinguish it from the little hierarchy problem we have described above. There are three main approaches to this problem. The ﬁrst is to introduce a new symmetry, that is, the SUSY, and to try to cancel the diverging radiative corrections order by order by introducing new particles.

### Beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics by Yorikiyo Nagashima

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