By Mats Lindroos
The beta-beam idea for the new release of electron neutrino beams was once first proposed through Piero Zucchelli in 2002. the belief created really a stir, hard the concept that extreme neutrino beams purely should be made from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams amenities or in destiny neutrino factories. the concept that firstly struggled to make an effect however the labor through many desktop physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the past 5 years has gained the beta-beam a well-earned place as one of many frontrunners for a potential destiny global laboratory for top depth neutrino oscillation physics. this is often the 1st whole monograph at the beta-beam suggestion. The ebook describes either technical features and experimental elements of the beta-beam, offering: scholars and scientists with an perception into the probabilities provided through beta-beams; facility designers with a kick off point for destiny reviews; and, coverage makers with a entire photograph of the bounds and percentages provided by means of a beta-beam.
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Extra info for Beta Beams
For the beta beam the losses due to radioactive decay during acceleration and storage is an additional complication. 1 Linear accelerators The simplest and fastest form of accelerator, but also the most space demanding and costly, is the linear accelerator (linac). The possibility of the fast acceleration of a (semi-)continuous beam in which the ions make a single passage through each accelerating cavity, thereby avoiding some collective phenomena which are particularly severe at low energy, makes the linac the ideal ﬁrst stage of a beta-beam facility.
This conﬁguration would have worse sensitivities to θ13 with respect to T2HK, very similar sensitivities to LCPV and much better sensitivities to sign(∆m223 ). For further details of this project see . 3 CNGS upgrades Sensitivities for an upgraded CNGS setup have been ﬁrst computed in . 5 · 1019 pot/yr 1 . • To be at the ﬁrst maximum at a baseline of around 750 km, the beam optics has been re-designed to focus pions of about 10 GeV/c momentum, against the 35 GeV/c momentum of the nominal CNGS.
To enhance diﬀusion and eﬀusion out of the target it must be heated. For high intensity facilities the heating caused by the beam is more than suﬃcient and the challenge for the target designer is to get rid of the excess heat so that the target is not destroyed. For the shortest-lived elements with high boiling points the target has to be kept at a temperature just below the melting point of the target material itself. 3 33 The ISOL method For the beta beam, the intensity is the main issue so the ISOL method – or one of the variants of the ISOL method discussed in the next subsections – is the natural choice for the production part.
Beta Beams by Mats Lindroos