By P. Rao
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Extra info for Atrial Septal Defect
Similar prevalence was observed by TEE examinations. Consequently the PFO should be considered a normal variant. However, some these PFOs are considered to be the seat of right to left shunt causing paradoxical embolism and cerebrovascular accidents (Lechat et al 1988, Webster et al 1988, Ende et al 1996, Windecker and Meier 2003) and hypoxemia as seen in platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (Waight et al 2000, Rao et al 2001). Right to left shunt thru’ PFO can also occur in patients who were previously treated for complex congenital cardiac anomalies (Rao et al 1997), including Fontan fenestrations as well as in patients who had right ventricular infarction (Bassi et al 2005).
Device closure of atrial septal defect during pregnancy for recurrent cerebrovascular accidents. Int J Cardiol 148:240241. , et al. (2009). Recurrence of congenital heart defects in families. Circulation 2009;120:295-301. Peisiewicz, W, Goch, A. Blinikowski, Z, et al. (2004). Changes in the cardiovascular system during pregnancy in women with secumdum atrial septal defect. Kardiol Pol. 60:218-228. Perloff, JK, Koos, BJ. (1992) Pregnancy and congenital heart disease In: Congenital Heart Disease in Adults, Perloff, JK & Childs, JS.
If pulmonary hypertension is suspected or if there are issues that can't be resolved by echocardiography, catheterization may be undertaken. If catheterization is performed, step-up in oxygen saturation at the right atrial level is seen. The left heart saturations are within normal range. Because the defects are usually large, the mean pressures in both atria are equal. The right ventricular and pulmonary arterial pressures are usually normal during childhood. The left heart pressures are also normal unless there is left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
Atrial Septal Defect by P. Rao