By Patrick Richard (Eds.)
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ZR E. 0. Lawrence and M. S . Livingston, Phys. Rev. 45,608 (1934). They reported on the acceleration of H+ ions to 5 MeV in this paper. 2. rrm). By having the ions move inside two D-shaped electrodes, dees, separated by an acceleration gap, the ions that start in phase will remain in phase with an accelerating RF electric field at the resonance frequency f a t the gap between the dees. 22-MeV protons. Constant-frequency cyclotrons are limited in energy due to the loss of resonance frequency of the ions from the relativistic increase in the mass with velocity, need for focusing of the beam in the Y direction (this is accomplished in normal cyclotrons by shaping the pole faces to give a very slight decrease of field with radius) as the radius becomes large, and the practical considerations of magnets and RF systems.
Phys. 14, 531 (1932). 56 F. Bloch, Ann. Phys. 16, 285 (1933); 2. Phys. 81, 363 (1933). 57 N . F. Mott, Proc. R o y . Soc. (London)A 124,425 (1929);A 135,429 f 1932):Proc. Cumbridge Phil. Soc. 27, 255 (1931). '* E. J . Williams. Proc. R o y . Soc. (London) A 135, 108 (1932). 58 M. S . Livingston and H. A . Bethe, Rev. Mod. Phys. 9, 245 (1937). Eo W. Henneberg, 2. Phys. 86, 592 (1933). 2. 40to study the atomic ionization of targets as a function of ion energy and target Z. This is the first heavy-ion atomic physics experiment using the accelerated-ion method.
The increase in energy loss at relativistic velocities is due to photon emission, bremsstrahlung, and Cerenkov radiation. In this study we focus our attention on the nonrelativistic energy region. I n Fig. 1, the nuclear energy loss is small when compared to the electronic energy loss, even at very low energy. For example, according to Lindhard r t u / . ~ *(LSS ' ~ theory), nuclear stopping accounts for 2% of the total stopping for protons in silicon at 10 keV, and 16% for 1 keV. In studies of energy loss, therefore, nuclear energy loss can be ignored, especially for light ions at medium and high velocities.
Atomic Physics: Accelerators by Patrick Richard (Eds.)