By Dbang 'dus sgrol ma, Dkon mchog dge legs, Mgon po tshe ring, and Dpal ldan chos dbyings (CK Stuart and G Roche eds; William Bleisch, Preface)
3 Tibetan groups in Yushu Tibetan self reliant Prefecture, and Rtswa chog neighborhood in Hainan Tibetan self sustaining Prefecture, Qinghai Province, PR China are studied when it comes to China's pastoral improvement regulations and their effect on neighborhood Tibetans.
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Additional info for ASIAN HIGHLANDS PERSPECTIVES Volume 18: Environmental Issues Facing Tibetan Pastoral Communities
2006), Pirie (2005), and Yan et al. (2005), who argue that fencing and privatization lead to erosion along riverbanks by concentrating livestock at water sources. Case Study 2 – Conflict Over Unevenly Distributed Pastoral Resources. Privatization and land division result in an imbalance in resource distribution across topographical variations. In particular, the placement of settlements and land division within variable topography significantly impacts grazing adaptability (Kuhn 2006:26): Mobility and herd diversity traditionally have been nomads' keys to surviving these conditions by evenly allocating animals to grasslands and taking advantage of local variations in climate and vegetation.
Local officers undertaking this work are not specialists in land redistribution; they are bureaucrats implementing an assigned task. As a result, rangeland boundaries are poorly defined and people lack documentation to legitimize rangeland privatization – a cause of social unrest (Zhang 2003). Unclear rangeland boundaries and ambiguous rangeland ownership are the foundations of conflict (Yangduo Caidan 2001). Rangeland conflict over grassland has accelerated since privatization took place. Peace between conflicting parties has been fragile.
Historically, grassland in [northeast Tibet] was held as common property" and "[this] greater flexibility in pasture allocation adjustments" kept residents away from inter-household grassland conflicts" (ibid:511-512). "[The] use rights privatization and especially fencing have precipitated new conflicts by increasing inequality of access to pasture and decreasing flexibility" (ibid:512). This contrasts sharply with the time when pastoralists lived and moved together, prior to •50• privatization.
ASIAN HIGHLANDS PERSPECTIVES Volume 18: Environmental Issues Facing Tibetan Pastoral Communities by Dbang 'dus sgrol ma, Dkon mchog dge legs, Mgon po tshe ring, and Dpal ldan chos dbyings (CK Stuart and G Roche eds; William Bleisch, Preface)