By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)
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R-- ... Fig. 7. Triple band of·hyperbolae (I); local life-histories (II) of the three hyperbolae, and succession of generations (III) at Tel Aviv calculated and observed for the Red Spider Anychus latus. 44 And whereas in insects the fertilization of the eggs precedes oviposition, as a rule, only for a very short period, we may define the period of development as lasting from birth (oviposition of parents) to first oviposition. g. egg, each larval and the pupal stage, preoviposition period). This hyperbola comprehends therefore the whole prereproductive period of the animal.
Some of these applications may briefly be mentioned: (I) The thermal constant is in certain cases the limiting factor in northern distribution. 3 ° C thermal constant = 1188 daydegrees}5. (2) In certain species splitting into variations, or subspecies, has occurred in the zone in which the thermal sum divides the area of the species into areas with one or two generations per year or one generation in two years, as is the case within the "Rassenkreis" of the pine shoot moth Evetria buoliana 6 • (3) The calculation of the theoretical local life-history by means of a hyperbola has proven to be of greatest value and economy when correct, or, if incorrect, has stimulated research on other limiting factors.
In a sequence of generations: Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 No. 1 the transition from the first to the second generation brings about the decisive increase. The absolute population abundance veils this fact very often. Anyhow, only the weather at the decisive periods of increase and not at the population peak should be regarded as optimal. Where only one to two annual generations occur, observations should be made for a series of years. But instead of the epidemiological approach we may choose also a zoogeographical analysis.
Animal Ecology To-Day by F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)