By Roger French
В этом исследовании автор показывает, что древнее естествознание было собранием и представлением историй и феноменов, достойных упоминания философами, популяризаторами или торговцами чудесами. В этой книге исследуются отношения между физическим миром, богами, греческой философией и целями тех, кто выражал весьма различные понятия о «природе». Основное внимание автора уделено «Истории животных» Аристотеля, «Естественной истории растений» Теофраста, «Географии» Страбона, а также, в некоторой степени, «Естественной истории» Плиния Старшего. Одна из основных тем книги - то, как к естествознанию относились различные общества: греки, римляне, евреи и христиане.Образцы сканов:
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This, says Aristotle,111 is why the study of the soul belongs to the study of physis, ‘nature’. 32 ARISTOTLE AND THE NATURES OF THINGS So Aristotle is drawing into his realm what his predecessors had thought belonged to some other field of study. Aristotle further explains that a traditional natural philosopher would discuss, let us say, ‘anger’ in some such terms as the boiling of blood round the heart, while it would be the dialectician who would call anger some affection of the soul such as the need to return pain for pain received.
They may have been lectures which Aristotle continuously brought up to date, yet which retained their interconnectedness and didactic functions for the benefit of beginners. The connections between the natural books is programmatic rather than chronological. The beginning of the programme was the Physics. It does not set out with a programme of discussions that will follow, and possibly, if it was written early, Aristotle had not yet decided that a programme could or should follow. 35 So what was Aristotle’s enterprise?
It should be noted that Aristotle sometimes equates the passive qualities (the Cold and the Dry) with the matter of the thing undergoing concoction. This is partly because he wants to establish a Form-Matter polarity so that the natural change can be ANCIENT NATURAL HISTORY 29 seen as having both process and purpose, and partly that, strictly, ‘matter’ has no recognisable qualities and cannot be acted on without its potential being realised to some degree in a Quality. In these ways Aristotle is making his major point that natural changes are enddirected and express the nature of the thing.
Ancient Natural History by Roger French