By Stefan Hagel
This ebook endeavours to pinpoint the kin among musical, and particularly instrumental, perform and the evolving conceptions of pitch platforms. It strains the improvement of historic melodic notation from reconstructed origins, via a number of variations necessitated by way of altering musical kinds and newly invented tools, to its ultimate canonical shape. It hence emerges how heavily historic harmonic conception trusted the culturally dominant tools, the lyre and the aulos. those threads are all the way down to overdue antiquity, while info recorded via Ptolemy allow a really transparent view. Dr Hagel discusses the textual and pictorial proof, introducing mathematical methods at any place possible, but additionally contributes to the translation of tools within the archaeological list and sometimes is ready to define the final positive factors of tools in a roundabout way attested. The publication might be critical to all these drawn to Greek tune, expertise and function tradition and the overall historical past of musicology.
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Extra info for Ancient Greek Music: A New Technical History
Winnington-Ingram 1958: 244–7). Diatonic music is attested in Old Babylonian cuneiform tablets, but probably goes back at least to Sumerian music; cf. g. Kilmer 1997; Kilmer 2001. , Harm. 19, p. 4. g. e–f–f –a36). Thus the basic relationship of the three genera can be drawn as follows: diatonic chromatic enharmonic But these relationships, stated in simple parts of a whole tone, served just for a ﬁrst orientation. In practice, musicians used a variety of ‘shades’. It is important for our topic that the varying sizes of pykná could make the distinction between the enharmonic and the chromatic appear somewhat arbitrary, as transpires from a passage from Aristoxenus:37 ʱȵȵʹ ȹ ȭȯ ȮȳȫȽȺȬȹȷȽȯȻ ąȯȺ Ƚ ,Ⱥȭȫȷȫ ȮȳȼȲ ȷȹȷȽȹ ȶ
ȷ ʼȴ ȼȽȹȾ ȽHȷ ȭȯȷHȷ, ȫ3Ƚ' ȶȷȽȹȳ Ƚ' ą&Ƚȯ ʵȺɀȯȽȫȳ ȸ ʲȺȶȹȷȫȻ ɀȺHȶ Ƚȳ ȭȭȷȯȼȲȫȳ, ȹ3ȮȯȻ ȹ3Ȯʹ ąȬȵȯɁȯ ą@ąȹȽʹ ȫ3ȽHȷ.
As our note a = LA. But once the is inserted it deﬁnes, together with , and , a sequence of three whole tones. Such a sequence is unique in the diatonic octave, and it ﬁxes the central a = LA to the Hypolydian mésʶ (a = LA is one but highest in the sequence f–g–a–b = FA–SOL–LA–SI). The implications can easily be gathered from the two rows of modern note names in Diagram 6. The fact that the Hypolydian mésʶ is the only note of identical appearance in both systems, by assimilation of an original vocal sign Ȣ to the lunate form , without doubt supported its perception as a central note as a considerable psycho81 The reference to the tunings of Archytas, in which the lowest intervals in the tetrachord are indeed equal, does not help: the paradigm behind the notation is deﬁnitely non-Pythagorean.
Unlike the shapes of the instrumental notes, the transparent letters of the vocal series naturally evolved together with the alphabet; cf. the usual % instead of original ࠶, which has been postulated in accordance with the letter form generally used until the third century BC (Winnington-Ingram 1978: 239–40; West 1992a: 42; note however that epigraphic evidence tells little about bookhands). 30 The evolution of ancient Greek musical notation ing to assume that the ﬁrst three letters had originally been mapped onto the triplet of nêtai.
Ancient Greek Music: A New Technical History by Stefan Hagel