By A. B. Bosworth
During this examine, Bosworth appears at Alexander the Great's actions in relevant Asia and Pakistan, drawing a bleak photograph of bloodbath and repression reminiscent of the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He investigates the evolution of Alexander's perspectives of empire and notion of common monarch, and records the illustration of Alexander by means of historians of antiquity. The publication is directed to experts and common readers alike.
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Additional info for Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph
8. 14. 9-13; Polyaen. 4. 3. 22. 44 Arr. 5. 16. 2-3; Plut. AI. 60. 10-11; Curt. 8. 14. 15-16. Alexander's strategy has been much discussed, many (notably Adolf Bauer and Tarn) seeing an element of surprise in it; but, given his crushing superiority in cavalry, there was no need for elaborate stratagems. The only doubtful issue was whether Porus would transfer cavalry from his right wing to relieve the beleaguered left. For full discussion see Bosworth, HCA ii. 295-7. 18 The Shield of Achilles tended their line leftwards, but, outnumbered as they were, they ran the risk of breaking formation.
20. See farther, Bosworth, HCA ii. 97-9. 57 Curt. 11. 20; 8. 6. 18. Whether the institution was law or merely custom (cf. Tarn, AI. ii. 270-1; Atkinson ii. 242) is immaterial. What Curtius implies is that relatives of regicides had been executed in the past and might have been under Alexander, had he not made a conscious and public decision to waive the practice. 58 The worries of the army are vividly expressed by Arrian (6. 12. 1-2). See below, Ch. 2, p. 54. 61 An attack on the person of the king and commander was a universal threat and treated with total ruthlessness, even if it meant the torture of adolescents and the massacre of non-combatants.
74 A good deal of skirmishing took place, but it rarely resulted in hand-to-hand combat. The contrast with Alexander's reign is dramatic. There are adactual combat, despite the war, until the Battle of Mantineia (the liberated helots under Brasidas' command in the north were less fortunate). See in general V. D. Hanson, The Western Way of War (New York 1989) 25; Hoplites 3-5, 125. 71 Xen. Anab. 5. 6. 13: 'expert because of their practice' (dia zrjv zQiprjv ixavovg). Xen. Anab. 4. 3. 2. Small-scale skirmishes are attested at 4.
Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph by A. B. Bosworth