By Ive Marx
Social scientists, politicians, and economists have lately been focused on the concept the complicated welfare states of Europe face a “New Social Question.” The middle inspiration is that the transition from an commercial to a postindustrial atmosphere has introduced with it an entire new set of social dangers, constraints, and trade-offs, which necessitate radical recalibration of social protection structures. a brand new Social query? analyzes that question intensive, with specific cognizance to the matter of source of revenue defense and the problems dealing with Bismarckian welfare states. it will likely be useful studying for someone attracted to knowing the way forward for ecu social policy.About the AuthorIve Marx is learn fellow on the Centre for Social coverage on the college of Antwerp, Belgium. [C:\Users\Microsoft\Documents\Calibre Library]
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Additional resources for A New Social Question?: On Minimum Income Protection in the Postindustrial Era
Individuals with low levels of education were found to have the highest levels of self-reliance poverty. More than 40 per cent of the self-reliant poor had an education level that is less than high school (which in the us context is quite a low level of education), and almost another 40 per cent had only a high-school degree. College graduates made up less than 3 per cent of self-reliant poor, half their share in the actual poor. However, it is not just low wages that caused high nec poverty among the less-skilled.
They, unlike their more skilled counterparts, have been most negatively affected by the preservation of high minimum wages, job protection rules, etc. The high cost of mass early retirement has, moreover, led to the cost of labour having become excessively high, hampering job creation in services. Hence, the prediction of a widening gap between the less-skilled and more-skilled – reinforced by educational homogamy. Belgium makes for a good case because it carries many of the hallmarks of what Esping-Andersen has called the conservative welfare state model, in which the Christian democratic ‘subsidiarity principle’ has institutionalised familialism in the sense of supporting the male breadwinner/female career model.
What we have is a hotchpotch of partial time series, often spanning rather short periods of time. But even if these partial time series are nothing more than clips from a longer film, they all suggest a similar plot line: rising pre-transfer poverty and transfer dependency. Using lis data, I have looked in more detail at five countries for which relatively longer trend data is available. indd 31 8-12-2006 15:12:43 pre-transfer/tax poverty trends, that is to say, poverty rates calculated on the basis of market income rather than actual disposable household income.
A New Social Question?: On Minimum Income Protection in the Postindustrial Era by Ive Marx