By Laura McPherson
Tommo So is a Dogon language with nearly 60,000 audio system in Mali, West Africa. As merely the second one complete grammatical description of a Dogon language, this quantity is a severe source for fixing the secret of Dogon's genetic association with different languages in Africa. Tommo So is an SOV language with setting apart nominal morphology and agglutinative verbal morphology; suffixes at the verb mark tense/aspect/negation in addition to topic contract. The phonology is delicate to degrees of verbal morphology in that variable vowel concord applies much less usually as one strikes to outer layers of the morphology. The tone procedure of Tommo So is of typological curiosity in either its phonological and syntactic instantiations. Phonologically, it's a two-tone method of H and L, yet those unique tones distinction with a surface-underspecified tone. Grammatically, the lexical tone of a observe is usually overwritten through syntactically-induced overlays. for instance, an inalienable noun's tone may be changed with L whether it is possessed via a non-pronominal possessor, and through both H or HL if the possessor is pronominal. The language has additionally innovated a chain of locative quasi-verbs and concentration debris delicate to pragmatic components like simple task.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Tommo So
It contrasts in backness (and rounding) with /e/, in height with /u/ and /a/, and in ATR value with /ɔ/. 3 /ɔ/ The vowel /ɔ/ is a back mid rounded vowel with a [-ATR] speciﬁcation. It contrasts with /ɛ/ in backness (and rounding), /u/ and /a/ in height, and /o/ in ATR. 4 /a/ The vowel /a/ is a low central unrounded vowel. It can sometimes be reduced to extra-short [a̯], as in [kádá̯ná] ‘oldest man in the village’, but the pronunciation of this reduced vowel is lower than that of [ə], the allophone of /u/ and /i/.
Possessor NP and/or pronoun possessor b. noun stem c. adjective(s) d. (numeral) e. possessive pronoun f. demonstrative, deﬁnite g. plural particle h. (numeral) i. ‘all’ There is some variation in the placement of the numeral, shown by its double listing in parentheses above. 3. SG pretty=DEF donkey black=DEF=PL three-ADV ‘the pretty woman’s three black donkeys’ Main clauses and constituent order 13 The NP is the site of many interesting tonal interactions, since both demonstratives and adjectives force tone lowering on the preceding noun, be it simple or compound, while numerals do not interact tonally at all.
The hortative is interesting in that here a distinction is made between ﬁrst person dual and plural. The dual (you and I) suﬃx is -mɔ́ , while the plural (you all and I) is -mɔ́ -ɲ̀ . Once again, this can be analyzed as the plural suﬃx from the imperatives, and so these hortatives are better seen as meaning “me and one single person” and “me and several people”, respectively. 3 Verbal derivation There are ﬁve main derivational suﬃxes in Tommo So: factitive -ndɛ, transitive -irɛ, reversive -ilɛ, mediopassive -iyɛ, and causative -mɔ.
A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura McPherson